Difference Between Antibiotic and Antimicrobial Resistance
Antibiotics are the medications which the doctors prescribe to their patients for the prevention and treatment of bacterial infectious diseases. Antibiotic resistance happens in case that bacteria undergo a modification as a reaction to the administration of these medications. Not the human body itself but bacteria in it develop antibiotic resistance. Due to this, such bacteria contribute to the development of infectious diseases in humans. And these diseases are much more difficult to combat comparing to the diseases caused by non-resistant bacteria.
As for the antimicrobial resistance, it’s a much broader definition comparing to antibiotic resistance. Antimicrobial resistance implies resistance to medications for the treatment of infections provoked by other microbes including fungi, viruses, and parasites.
Antimicrobial Resistance as a Global Problem
New kinds of antimicrobial resistance appear and become widespread all over the globe very quickly nowadays. They drastically restrict the possibilities and resources of healthcare providers to cure even the commonly known infectious diseases. Due to this, the diseases last much longer than usually. Moreover, they can make people disabled or even cause death.
If the doctors don’t have adequate antimicrobial medications at their disposal, they will not be able to safely and successfully tackle the issues of infections and perform very serious procedures, on which the patient’s life depends. These procedures include diabetes treatment, organ transplantation, hip replacements, cancer chemotherapy, and caesarean sections. And when antimicrobial resistance develops, these procedures and treatment techniques become extremely risky. The risk yet grows considerably higher if the patient suffers from obesity, even provided that the patient takes the high-quality natural fat burners.
Also, antimicrobial resistance makes the health care prices substantially raise due to the prolongation of the necessity to be in hospital and the application of more expensive treatment methods and medications.
That’s why the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance poses a terrifying, rapidly gaining pace threat to the health of both the communities within a particular country and the world population as a whole.
How to Prevent Antimicrobial Resistance
Antimicrobial resistance always occurs due to the inappropriate use or overdosage of certain antibiotics and is often aggravated with insufficient measures for infection prevention and management. There is a range of actions which each person can take in order to not allow antimicrobial resistance to happen and then further develop. These actions are as follows:
- Intake of antibiotics strictly and solely in the event that you get such a prescription from your healthcare provider
- No insistence in using antibiotics if the healthcare provider doesn’t deem it appropriate
- Execution of antibiotic intake instructions in full obedience
- No sharing antibiotics or applying leftover prescriptions
- Compliance with infection prevention measures such as keeping hands clean, having no contacts with ill people, maintaining sexual relationship with only one sex partner, and timely sticking to a vaccination routine
- Food preparation in a hygienic way by using just clean kitchenware, storing cooked and raw foods in different places, avoid eating undercooked food, storing food at proper temperature, cooking with uncontaminated and high-quality ingredients
- Use of just antibiotic-free animal products, raised without the application of any antibiotics
- Treatment of widespread viral infectious diseases like sore throat, running nose, common cold, and influenza without any antibiotics
- Obligatory completion of the course of prescribed antibiotics even in case of noticing improvements
You should note that the engagement in body weight management with the help of all-natural appetite suppressants has no influence on antimicrobial resistance.
Don’t forget that the treatment of every mild ailment with antibiotics substantially reduces your chances to successfully and quickly overcome a really serious disease if it afflicts you.
Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing
Antimicrobial sustainability testing (AST) is a crucial method that helps the doctors find out whether certain microorganisms respond to the action of certain antibiotics.
Infectious agents isolated from laboratory samples are specified to prove a specific diagnosis and to determine antimicrobial treatment approach. This gives the healthcare providers an opportunity to select the right antibiotics able to powerfully combat the medical condition and not to prescribe the antibiotics which are helpless for treating the condition. That is, the antibiotics which the infectious agents developed an antimicrobial resistance to will not be prescribed.
It’s possible to distinguish qualitative, semiqualitative, and nucleic acid-based antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods. Such testing is done in vitro but not always considers all factors which have a direct impact on the treatment efficacy. The most frequently utilized method for appraising antimicrobial resistance is the disc diffusion test. The minimum inhibitory concentration method is one more way to determine antimicrobial sustainability. Both of tests use agar as a substance where the pure cultures of bacteria interact with different antibiotics.
These tests demonstrate which bacteria can be killed by specific antibiotics. Susceptibility testing can be performed not only for bacteria but also for viruses and fungi. In addition, synergy testing enables the medical experts to assess the action of simultaneous intake of various antimicrobial remedies.
Who Risks Suffering from Antibiotic Resistance
A person who is very frequently taking antibiotics becomes much more predisposed to the occurrence of antibiotic resistance.
The threat of antibiotic resistance equally refers to people who undertake the pharmaceutical treatment with antibiotics in case this treatment is unnecessary. Thus, antibiotics are helpless for fighting viral infections. Similarly to bacteria which afflict the body, the invasion of viruses provokes the onset of an infectious disease. Flu is a spectacular example of viral infection. The use of antibiotics for the flu treatment doesn’t have any positive effect, while substantially raises the probability of antibiotic resistance.
Also, it’s necessary to finish all prescribed antibiotics. It’s strictly not recommended to skip some dosages of antibiotics or refuse from taking the medications in the middle of the course since there is a high risk that bacteria remain alive in your body. The worst thing, that these bacteria develop resistance to certain antibiotics, while the intake of high-quality non-prescription testosterone boosters will not have any impact in antibiotic resistance.
How Antibiotic-Resistant Infectious Infections Spread
Regardless of whether bacteria are resistant or nonresistant, the ways of their spread don’t differ. The persons whom bacteria afflict can contact with any surface. And when the other persons who are healthy contact with the contaminated surface, become afflicted as well. The bacteria can even easier and quicker invade the body if the skin barrier is damaged.
Coughing and sneezing can also contribute to the active spread of infectious diseases.
Also, the infected people may contaminate food. If a healthy person eats this food, this person will become infected as well. The use of even the best over-the-counter diet pills doesn’t protect against the spread of infectious diseases.
The unprotected sex with multiple sex partners is also a frequent source of infection.
It’s possible to take effective protective measures against the spread of bacterial infectious diseases and hence not to let antibacterial resistance happen if you:
- Always keep hands clean by using water and soap
- Don’t give other people your food and beverages as well as don’t take their food and beverages
- Have only safe sex with one sexual partner
- Sneeze and cough only into tissue papers, not into hands or onto different surfaces
- Don’t contact with cuts on other people’s skin
- Don’t interchange body hygiene items like brushes, towels, and razors with other people
It’s recommended to use plain soap as the most optimal option for cleaning both hands and shared surfaces. Also, you should remember that antibacterial soap is unable to prevent the spread of contamination agents. Such a soap can even provoke the development of antimicrobial resistance.
Widespread Types of Antibiotic Resistance
- Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria: It is widespread in hospitals. That’s why it is called a hospital acquired or HA-MRSA. However, this type of antibiotic resistance is also frequently occurring in athletes, even if they take the most advanced HGH supplements. In this case, it is a community associated or CA-MRSA.
- Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) bacteria: These germs develop resistance to vancomycin. Antibiotics are prescribed in an extreme emergency.
- Multiple microbes: They acquire antibiotic resistance more and more frequently. The range of such microbes includes E.coli, Salmonella, Campylobacter, Gonorrhea-causing bacteria, and Penicillin-resistant Streptococci.